Allegiance (Bayah) of Ali to Abubakr, Umar & Uthman


بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

Contributed by brother Kalaam (member of Islamic-Forum.net)
Posted by 13S2010

عن سعيد بن المسيب قال : خرج علي بن أبي طالب لبيعة أبي بكر فبايعه فسمع مقالة الأنصار فقال علي : يا أيها الناس أيكم يؤخر من قدم رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ؟ قال سعيد بن المسيب : فجاء علي بكلمة لم يأت بها أحد منهم

1.) It has been narrated from Saeed that Ali went out to render allegiance to Abu Bakr. In the way, he heard the Ansar talking. Ali said : O people, who can -postpone- the person whom the Prophet (s) has -prioritized-. Saeed says that Ali said such a thing which on one else could have said. [Kinzul Ummal 3/141]

عن قيس بن عبادة ، قال : قال لي علي بن أبي طالب : ” إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مرض ليالي وأياما ينادي بالصلاة ، فيقول : مروا أبا بكر يصلي بالناس “.فلما قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، نظرت فإذا الصلاة علم الإسلام وقوام الدين ، فرضينا لدنيانا من رضي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لديننا ، فبايعنا أبا بكر

2.) It has been narrated from Qais ibn Qatadah that he said : Ali said to me that Prophet (s) was ill in his last days and he would say that Abu Bakr should lead the prayer for people. So when he died then I thought that prayer is the sign of Islam. So we selected the person for our worldly affairs when the Prophet (s) had selected for our religious affairs. So we rendered allegiance to him. [Istiab 2/242]

عن أبي الجحاف قال : قام أبو بكر رضي الله عنه بعدما بويع له ، وبايع له علي رضي الله عنه وأصحابه ، قام ثلاثا يقول : أيها الناس قد أقلتكم بيعتكم ، هل من كاره ؟ . قال : فيقوم علي رضي الله عنه في أوائل الناس فيقول : لا والله لا نقيلك ولا نستقيلك ، قدمك رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فمن ذا الذي يؤخرك ؟

3.) It has been narrated from Abul Jahaf that he said : When the people rendered allegiance to Abu Bakr, he stood up and announced three times that O people : (If you wish then) I return to you your allegiance. So Ali stood up and said : By Allah, neither we return it nor we wish you to do so, you have been put forth by the Prophet (s) in prayer, so who can -postpone- you? [Ansab al-ashraf 1/587]

عن زيد بن علي عن آبائه قال‏:‏ قام أبو بكر على منبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال‏:‏ هل من كاره فأقيله ثلاثا يقول ذلك، فعند ذلك يقوم علي بن أبي طالب فيقول‏:‏ لا والله لا نقيلك ولا نستقيلك من ذا الذي يؤخرك وقد قدمك رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم‏

4.) Zaid ibn Ali narrate from his forefathers that Abu Bakr said : Whoever dislikes my allegiance then I am ready to return it. He repeated it thrice. Then Ali stood up and said : By God, neither we want to take it back nor desire it from you. You have been put forth by the Prophet (s) in prayer so how can we -postpone- you? [Kinzul ummah 3/140]

عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر قال : أتاني علي بن أبي طالب عائدا ، فقال : توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فبايع الناس أبا بكر فبايعت ورضيت ، ثم توفي عمر فجعلها شورى ، فبايعوا عثمان فبايعت ورضيت

5.) It has been narrated from Abdur Rahman ibn abi Bakrah that he said : Ali visited me (during illness), and said : The Prophet (s) died and the people rendered allegiance to Abu Bakr and we agreed with it. Then Abu Bakr died and Umar became Caliph, I also rendered allegiance to him and was agreed with it. When Umar died, he had formed a council. The people rendered allegiance to Uthman, I also rendered allegiance to him and was agreed with it. [Fadhail Abi Bakr. ,p 5]

عن قيس بن عباد ، قال : قال علي بن أبي طالب : والذي فلق الحبة وبرأ النسمة ، لو عهد إلي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عهدا لجاهدت عليه ، ولم أترك ابن أبي قحافة يرقى درجة واحدة من منبره

6.) It has been narrated from Qais that Ali said : By the one who opened the grain and created the plant from it, if the Prophet (s) had promised me (about caliphate) then I would have stood firmly on it and I would not have let Abu Bakr climb a single step on the pulpit of the Prophet (s). [Kinzul ummal 3/141]

عن سيار أبي الحكم أن أبا بكر لما ثقل أطلع رأسه إلى الناس من كوة فقال : يا أيها الناس إني قد عهدت عهدا ، أفترضون به ؟ فقام الناس فقالوا : قد رضينا ، فقام علي فقال : لا نرضى إلا أن يكون عمر بن الخطاب

7.) It has been narrated from Yassar that he said : When the last time of Abubakr arrived, he appeared from the window and addressing the people, said : I have made a promise, do you agree with it? The people said : O caliph of the Messenger of Allah, we agree with it. Ali said : We will not agree with anyone except Umar. [Usudul Ghaba 4/70]

عن سلمة بن أبي سلمة بن عبد الرحمن ، عن أبيه ، قال : ” أول من بايع لعثمان عبد الرحمن ثم علي بن أبي طالب

8.) It has been narrated from Salma that he said : The first one to render allegiance to Uthman was Abdur Rahman ibn Awf and after him, Ali ibn abi talib. [Tabaqat ibn Saad 3/42]

أخبرنا محمد بن عمر ، قال : حدثني عمر بن عميرة بن هني مولى عمر بن الخطاب ، عن أبيه ، عن جده ، قال : ” أنا رأيت عليا ” بايع عثمان أول الناس ” ، ثم تتابع الناس فبايعوا

9.) Umar ibn Umairah, the slave of Umar ibn Khattab, narrated from his father and he from his grandfather that I saw that the first one to render allegiance to Uthman was Ali amongst the people, then the people followed him and rendered allegiance (to Uthman). [Bukhari 1/525]

10.) Ibn Kathir has also mentioned the allegiance of Ali to Uthman. [Al bidaya 7/147]

11.) Abdur Razaq has also mentioned it. [Musannaf 5/478]

12.) Ibn Kathir says : This sanad (of the narration of sunan baihaqi) is sahih from the hadith of abu nadhra al muadhar ibn malik from abu saeed saad ibn malik ibn sanan and it has a great benefit which is that the allegiance of Ali (to Abu Bakr) held on the first day or the second day after the death of the Prophet (s). And this is what is correct, as Ali never separated from Abu Bakr at any time and didn’t stop praying behind him in any prayer. [Al bidaya 4/248]

عن حبيب بن أبي ثابت قال كان علي في بيته إذ أتي فقيل له قد جلس أبو بكر للبيعة فخرج في قميص ما عليه إزار ولا رداء عجلا كراهية أن يبطئ عنها حتى بايعه ثم جلس إليه وبعث إلى ثوبه فأتاه فتجلله ولزم مجلسه

13.) It has been narrated from Habib that he said : Ali was at home when it was said to him that Abu Bakr is sitting for allegiance, so he went out at once till he pledged allegiance to him. [Tarikh al-Tibri 3/201]

14.) Imam Baihaqi says: The saying of Zuhri that Ali didn’t render allegiance to Abu Bakr till he died is disconnected and the hadith of Abu Saeed Khudri in which his allegiance is mentioned after Saqifa alongwith the masses is more correct. And he says in al aitqad : And what is mentioned that Ali didn’t render allegiance to Abu Bakr for six months, it is the saying of Zuhri,not Ayesha. [al-Aitqad p. 180]

15.) Ibn Hajr asqalani says : Ibn Habban and others have authenticated the narration of Abu Saeed Khudri that Ali rendered allegiance to AbuBakr in the beginning and as far as what is mentioned in Muslim from Zuhri that a man said to him , did Ali not render allegiance to Abu Bakr till Fatima died, and he said , No and not a single person from Bani Hashim, then Baihaqi has weakened it, because Zuhri hasn’t provided the sanad and the narration (from Abu Saeed Khudri) is more correct. [Fathul Bari, 7/399]

Shiite Sources: (We have already posted other Shia narrations before on this link.)

عن زرارة، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام) قال … كتم علي (عليه السلام) أمره وبايع مكرها حيث لم يجد أعوانا

1.) Zurarah narrated from Imam Baqir that he said : Ali had hidden his ‘amr’ and rendered allegiance with disliking when he didn’t find supporters. [Furu Kafi, 3/139]

لما وردت الكتب على اسامة انصرف بمن معه حتى دخل المدينة، فلما رأى اجتماع الخلق على ابى بكر انطلق إلى علي بن ابي طالب عليه السلام فقال له: ماهذا ؟ قال له علي: هذا ما ترى. قال له اسامة: فهل بايعته ؟ فقال: نعم يا اسامة.

2.) When the letter reached Usama, he returned with his supporters to Medinah, and when he saw that the people have united on AbuBakr, he went to Ali and asked : What is it? He replied :This is what you are observing. Usama asked : Have you also rendered allegiance to him? Ali said : Yes O Usamah! [Ihtijaj p. 50]

Shustri says:

حضرت امیر و سائر بنی ھاشم از روئے اکراہ با ابی بکر بظاھر بیعت کردند و دست بر دست اوزدند

3.) Ali and the complete bani hashim rendered allegiance to Abu Bakr with dislike, and laid their hands on his hand. [Majalis al Momineen, tadhkira Khalid ibn saeed]

فبايعت أبا بكر كما بايعتموه، وكرهت أن أشق عصا المسلمين، وأن أفرق بين جماعتهم، ثم أن أبا بكر جعلها لعمر من بعده، وأنتم تعلمون أني أولى الناس برسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) وبالناس من بعده، فبايعت عمر كما بايعتموه، فوفيت له ببيعته حتى لما قتل جعلني سادس ستة، فدخلت حيث أدخلني، وكرهت أن أفرق جماعة المسلمين وأشق عصاهم، فبايعتم عثمان فبايعته

4.) Ali said : I rendered allegiance to Abu Bakr just like you people rendered allegiance to him, and disliked to break the power of Muslims and disunite their jamaat, then when AbuBakr appointed Umar as Caliph after him, and you knew that I had more right after the Messenger of Allah (s), I still rendered allegiance to Umar as you rendered allegiance to him, till when he was killed and made me the member of six member council, I joined them and disliked to disunite the jamaat of the Muslims and break their power. Then you rendered allegiance to Uthman, I also rendered allegiance to him. [Amali by Tusi, 2/121]

5.) Sayyid Murtadha says in ‘al Shafi’ : What is apparent and in which there is no problem is that Ali rendered allegiance (to Abu Bakr) to protect from Sharr and escape from fitnah. [al-Shafi, p. 209]

1 Comment

Filed under Ahlulbait-Sahaba relations, History

One response to “Allegiance (Bayah) of Ali to Abubakr, Umar & Uthman

  1. Pingback: Allegiance (Bayah) of Ali to Abubakr, Umar & Uthman | The Revivers

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