Written by Shia brother Husayn Original article link Posted here by 13S2010
Qur’an 9:40 – Abu Bakr’s Huzn – Analysing Al-Mufid’s Arguments
إِلَّا تَنصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللَّـهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ مَعَنَا ۖ فَأَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَيَّدَهُ بِجُنُودٍ لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا السُّفْلَىٰ ۗ وَكَلِمَةُ اللَّـهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيَا ۗ وَاللَّـهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
If ye help him not, still Allah helped him when those who disbelieve drove him forth, the second of two; when they two were in the cave,when he said unto his comrade: Grieve not. Lo! Allah is with us. Then Allah caused His peace of reassurance to descend upon him and supported him with hosts ye cannot see, and made the word of those who disbelieved the nethermost, while Allah’s Word it was that became the uppermost. Allah is Mighty, Wise.
This verse refers to when Abu Bakr & Rasul Allah (saw) were in the cave together, and Abu Bakr become grieved at the situation.
Al-Mufid claims to have had a dream in which he saw ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, in which he argued with ‘Umar about Abu Bakr’s status – and one of the points was Abu Bakr “grief”. Al-Mufid makes the following argument:
“And the words ‘Don’t grieve’ were not meant for any solace;. Because it was a statement forbidding an act. In Arabic, we have ‘donts’ and ‘dos’ as imperative verbs. Now, the grief expressed by Abu Bakr was either an act of obedience or disobedience. If it was obedience, the Prophet would not have forbidden it, therefore it is proved that it was an act of sin and disobedience.”
Here, al-Mufid does a few things:
1. He uses Qiyas (analogical reasoning) – apparently forbidden by the infallible Imams – to establish that the huzn (grief) of Abu Bakr is a haram act.
How so? He refers to the hukm (ruling) that whatever the Prophet (saw) forbids is haram or a sin.
He establishes the illah (effective cause) as being the Prophet’s command.
He then uses it in the context of Abu Bakr’s huzn in the cave to establish that Abu Bakr committed a sin (because his being grieved was “disobeying” the Prophet (saw), and hence, according to the original hukm, a haram act).
Using this analogical reasoning – If I had an arrow stuck in my eye, and the Prophet (saw) said in a kindly and reassuring manner – “Don’t worry about it” (because he was trying to comfort me) – and I continued worrying (because I had an arrow stuck in my eye, and I’m just human) – then I would be committing a grievous sin for disobeying the Prophet (saw) and continuing to worry.
2. Al-Mufid interprets the Prophet’s (saw) words “Grieve not (la tahzan)” as a command – rather than words of re-assurance. He wants to cast Abu Bakr in a bad light for this huzn. The logic is that – Abu Bakr is in the cave with the Prophet (saw), why would he grieve? Shouldn’t he be happy?
Being grieved when you are with the Prophet must be an act of cowardice or kufr, according to al-Mufid’s reasoning.
Let us apply this reasoning to some other famous characters:
– Prophet Moussa and Harun:
There are many mentions in the Qur’an about the “khawf (fear)” of Moussa. Not “huzn (grief)”, but “khawf (fear)”. And in whose presence was Moussa afraid? In the presence of Allah (swt) Himself!
Allah (swt) gives Moussa several commands, and continually tells him “la takhaf (don’t fear)”.
قَالَ خُذْهَا وَلَا تَخَفْ
He (Allah) said (to Moussa): Take it and don’t fear! (Qur’an 20:21) – in reference to the staff that Allah (swt) had just turned into a snake.
A few verses later, and Moussa still declares that he is afraid (even after Allah (swt) had told him not to be afraid):
قَالَا رَبَّنَا إِنَّنَا نَخَافُ أَن يَفْرُطَ عَلَيْنَا أَوْ أَن يَطْغَىٰ
When Allah (swt) orders Moussa to go to Pharoah, Moussa (as) replies – “My Lord, we (me and my brother Harun) fear that he will punish or oppress us!” Qur’an (20:45)
Subhan Allah, according to al-Mufid’s logic, Moussa and his brother Harun must be enormous cowards! Allah (swt) is speaking to themdirectly, and yet they are still afraid!
And this fear of Moussa is even worse, when you take into account that Allah (swt) had already told Moussa not to be scared a few verses before this.
And when Moussa killed the Egyptian man, what does the Qur’an say about him?
فَأَصْبَحَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ
And morning found him in the city, fearing, vigilant (Qur’an 28:18)
And later on when he left the town:
فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ
And he left it scared, vigilant (Qur’an 28:21)
– Maryam (mother of Jesus)
When she falls pregnant by Allah (swt)’s command, she says:
يَا لَيْتَنِي مِتُّ قَبْلَ هَـٰذَا وَكُنتُ نَسْيًا مَّنسِيًّا
Were that I were dead before this and was a thing forgotten! (Qur’an 19:23)
So the angel says to her:
فَنَادَاهَا مِن تَحْتِهَا أَلَّا تَحْزَنِي
And he said to her from beneath her, Don’t grieve (la tahzani) Qur’an (19:24)
Here, an angel had come and spoken to Maryam, and yet she wished for death due to the pain of childbirth, and the angel consoled her and told her not to grieve.
Yet, by the logic of al-Mufid, Maryam, due to her “huzn (grief)”, must be labelled as a sinner or coward, just like Abu Bakr.
– Rasul Allah (saw):
Allah (swt) tells the Prophet:
وَلَا تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا تَكُن فِي ضَيْقٍ مِّمَّا يَمْكُرُونَ
And don’t be grieved by what they say nor be in distress by what they plot (Qur’an 27:70)
Again, using the Qiyas of al-Mufid, what shall we say about the Prophet’s huzn (grief) and thayk (distress)?
The qiyas of al-Mufid in the case of Abu Bakr damns so many different people.
Is the price of making Abu Bakr a coward worth paying, when the cost is to cast an evil shadow over so many other great figures in Islam?